Himachal Pradesh is almost wholly mountainous with altitudes ranging from 350 meters to 6,975 meters above the mean sea level.
It is located between Latitude 300 22’ 40’’ N to 33O 12’ 20’’ N and Longitude 75O 45’ 55’’ E to 79O 04’ 20’’ E.
It has a deeply dissected topography, complex geological structure and rich temperate flora in the sub-tropical latitudes.
Physiographically, the State can be divided into five zones – viz.
- Wet Sub-temperate zone
- Humid Sub-temperate zone
- Dry temperate-alpine High lands
- Humid Sub-tropical zone
- Sub-Humid Sub-tropical zone
Wet Sub-temperate zone comprises Palampur and Dharamsala of Kangra District, Jogindernagar area of Mandi district and Dalhousie area of Chamba district.
Humid Sub-temperate zone comprises the districts of Kullu, Shimla, parts of Mandi, Solan, Chamba, Kangra, and Sirmour.
Dry temperate-Alpine High lands include major parts of Lahaul-Spiti, Pangi and Kinnaur.
Humid Sub-tropical zone consists of district Sirmaur, Bhattiyat valley of district Chamba, Nalagarh area of district Solan, Dehragopipur and Nurpur areas of district Kangra.
Sub-humid tropical zone Sirmour and Indora area of district Kangra.