Syllabus – Anthropology Optional HAS/HPAS

By | August 14, 2018



1.1 Meaning, scope and historic perspective of Anthropology.

1.2 Relationship with other disciplines: History, Economics, Sociology, Psychology, Political Science, Zoology, Medical Science.

1.3 Main branches of Anthropology, their scope and relevance:-

(a) Social cultural Anthropology;

(b) Physical and biological Anthropology;

(c) Archaeological Anthropology.

1.4 Emergence of Man and Human Evolution:-

I. Emergence of man its time, place and subsequent dispersal of the various continents.

II. Origin and evolution all the sequential stages with features.

III. Principles of systematics and taxonomy, major primate taxa, tertiary and quaternary fossil primates, systematics of Hominoidae and Hominidae.

1.5 Phylogenetic status, characteristics and geographical distribution of the following:-

(a) Plio-pleistocence fossil primates- Oreopithecus

(b) South and East African hominids – Plesianthropus Australopithecus Africa Paranthropus, Australopithecus.

(c) Paranthropus-Homo erectus-Homo erectus javanicus, Homo erectus pekinensis.

(d) Homo Heidelbergensis.

(e) Neanderthal man-La-chapelle-aux-saints (Classical type), Mt. Carmel (Progressive type).

(f) Rhodesian man

(g) Homo-saoiens-Cromagnon, Grimaldi, Chancelede.

(h) Recent advances in understanding the evolution, distribution and multidisciplinary approach to understand a fossil type in relation to others.

1.6 Evolution trends and classification of the Order Primate, Relationship with other Mammal, molecular evolution of Primates, Primate Locomotion; Terrestrial and arboreal adaptation, skeletal changes due to erect posture and its implications.

1.7 Cultural Evolution (Broad outlines of pre-historic cultures):-

(a) Paleolithic

(b) Mesolithic

(c) Neolithic

(d) Chalcolithic

(e) Copper-Bronze age

(f) Iron age

2.1 Family – Definition and typology of family, household and domestic groups. Basic structure and functions; stability and changes in family. Typology and processual approaches to the study of family, Impact of urbanization, industrialization, education and feminist movements. University of family- a critique.

2.2 Concept of Kinship: Definition of kin, incest prohibition exogamy and endogamy. Principles of descent- types and functions. Political and rural aspects of kinship. Unilineal, bilateral and double descent. Descent, filiation and complementary filiation. Kinship terminology Alliance and descent.

2.3 Marriage- Definitions, types and variation of marriage systems. Debates on the universal definition of marriage. Regulation of marriage-preferential, proscriptive and open system. Types and form of marriage dowry, bride-price, gestation, marriage stability.

3.1 Study of culture, patterns and processes. Concept of culture, patterns of culture, relationships between culture and civilization, culture and society.

3.2 Concepts of Social Change and Cultural Change.

3.3 Social structure and social organization, Role-analysis and social network. Instructions, group’s community. Social stratifications: Principles and form, status, class and power, gender. Nature and types.

3.4 Concept of Society.

3.5 Approaches to the study of culture and society-classical evolutionism, neo-evolutionism, cultural ecology, historical particularism and diffusionism, Structural-functionalism, culture and personality, transactions-alism, symbolism, cognitive approach and new ethnography, post structuralism and post modernism.

4.1 Definitions and functions of religion, Anthropological approaches to the study of religionevolutionary, psychological and functional. Practice of magic, Witchcraft and sorcery; Definitions and functions and functionaries like priest, shaman, medicine man and sorcerers. Symbolism in religion and rituals. Ethno medicines, its definition, historical background, present status and significance in modern times. Myths and rituals: definitions and approaches to their study-structural, functional and processual relation with economic and political structures.

5.1 Meaning, scope and relevance, principles governing productions, distribution and consumption in communities subsisting on hunting-gathering, fishing, pastoralism, horticulture and other economic pursuits. Formalist and substantivist debate-Dalton, Karlpoyanny and Marx approach and new economic anthropology. Exchange: gifts, barter, trade, ceremonial exchange and market economy.

5.2 Theoretical foundations. Types of political organizations-band, tribe, control, law and justice in tribal and peasant societies including Indian scenario.

6.1 Concepts of developmental anthropological perspective. Models of development. Critiques of classical developmental theories. Concepts of planning and planned development. Concepts of participatory development. Culture ecology and sustainable development. Displacement and rehabilitation.

7.1 Concept of research in anthropology, subjectivity and reflexivity in terms of gender class, ideology and ethics. Distinction between methodology, methods and techniques. Nature and explanation in anthropological research. Positivistic and non-positivistic approaches. Comparative methods; nature, purpose and methods of comparison in social and cultural anthropology. Basic techniques of data collection. Interview, participant and other forms of observation, schedules, questionnaire, case study methods, extended case study methods, life histories and secondary sources, oral history, genealogical method, participatory, learning and assessment (PLA). Participatory rapid assessment (PRA). Analysis, interpretation and presentation of data.

8.1 Concept, scope and major branches of human genetics. Its relationship with their branches of science and medicine.

8.2 Method for study of genetic principles in man-family study (Pedigree analysis, twin study, foster child, co-twin method, cytogenetic method, chromosomal and karyo-type analysis), biochemical methods, immunological methods, DNA technology and recombinant technologies.

8.3 Twin study method-zygosity, heritability estimates, present status of the twin study method and its applications.

8.4 Mendelian genetics in man- family study, single factor, multifactor, lethal, sub-lethal, and polygenic inheritance in man.

8.5 Concept of genetic polymorphism and selection, Mendelian population, Hardy-Weinberg law; causes and changes which bring down frequency-mutation, isolation, migration, selection, inbreeding and genetic drift. Consanguineous and cousin marriages (statistical and probability methods for study of human genetics).

8.6 Chromosomes and chromosomal aberrations in man, methodology.

a) Numerical and structural aberrations (disorders).

b) Sex chromosomal aberrations Klinefelter (XXY), Turner (XO), Super female (XXX), intersex, and other syndromic disorders.

c) Autosomal aberrations-Down syndrome, Patau, Edward and Cri-du-chat syndromes.

d) Genetic imprints in him and disease, genetic screening, genetic counselling, human DNA profiling, gene mapping and genome study.

8.7 Concept of race in historical and biological perspective. Race and racism, biological basis of morphological variation on on-merit and metric characters Racial criteria, racial traits in relation to heredity and race-crossing in man.

8.8 Ethnic groups of mankind-characteristics and distributions in world, racial classification of human groups. Principal living, people or the world, their distribution and characteristics.

8.9 Age, sex and population variation in genetic market. ABO, Rh blood groups, HLA, Hp, transferring, Gm, blood enzymes. Physiological characteristics- Hb level, body fat, pulse fate, respiratory functions and sensory perceptions in different cultural and socioeconomic groups. Impact of smoking, air pollution, alcoholism, drugs and occupational hazards on human health.

9.1 Concept and Methods of Ecological Anthropology: Resources-biological and sustainable development.

10.1 Relevance in understanding of contemporary society. Dynamics of ethnicity at rural, tribal, urban and international levels. Ethnic conflicts and political developments. Concept of nation state.

11.1 Concept of human growth and development-stages of growth-prenatal, natal, infant, childhood, childhood, adolescence, maturity, senescence.

12.1 Demography and Population study: Human Population trends in the last 100 years, 2000 years and 50 years hence; related consequences and challenges in developed, under developed and developing countries of the world.

12.2 Demographic theories-biological, registration system, sample methods, duel reporting system.

12.3 Methods of studying population growth.

12.4 Biological consequences of population control and family welfare.

12.5 Anthropology in designing of deference and other equipments.

12.6 Forensic Anthropology.

12.7 Methods and principles of personal identification and reconstruction.


Evolution of the Indian Culture and Civilization-Pre historic (Paleolithic, Mesolithic and Neolithic), Protohistoric (Indus Civilization). Vedic and post-Vedic beginning. Contributions of the tribal cultures.

1. Demographic profile of India-Ethic and Linguistic elements in the Indian population and their distribution. Indian population growth patterns factors influencing its structure and growth.

2. The basis structure and nature of traditional Indian social system-a critique. Varnasharm. Purushartha, Karma, Rina and Rebirth. Theories on the origin of caste system, Jajmani system. Structural basis of inequality in traditional Indian society. Impact of Buddhism, Jainism, Islam and Christianity on Indian Society.

3. Emergence, growth and development of anthropology in India-contributions of the 19th Century and early 20th Century scholar administrator. Contributions of Indian anthropologist of tribal and caste studies. Contemporary nature of anthropological studies in India.

4. Approaches to the study of Indian society and culture-traditional and contemporary.

4.1 Aspects of Indian village: Historical perspective of Indian villages; Role of rural agriculture economy in rural life, its drawbacks and potentials, future of rural agroeconomy past, present and prospective future status and role of Indian villages in our national life.

4.2 Linguistic and religious minorities-social, political and economic status. Distribution of linguistic societies in each State in India, treats to linguistic in India and elsewhere, censes for hiding linguistic identities in modern world, role of linguistics in Human society in past, present and future.

5. Tribal situation in India- biogenetic variability, linguistic and socio-economic characteristics of the tribal populations and their distribution. Problems of the tribal Communities-land alienation, poverty indebtedness, low literacy, poor educational facilities, unemployment, underemployment, health and nutrition. Developmental projects-tribal displacement and problems of rehabilitation:

Development of forest policy and tribal, Impact of urbanization and industrialization on tribal and rural populations.

6. Problems of exploitation and deprivation of Scheduled Caste / Scheduled Tribes and Other Backward classes. Constitutional safeguards for Schedule Tribes and Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Castes. Social change and contemporary tribal societies: Impact of modern democratic institutions, development programmes and welfare measures on tribals and weaker sections. Emergence of ethnicity, tribal movements and quest for identity. Pseudotribalism.

7. Social change among the tribes during colonial and post-Independent India.

7.1 Impact of Hinduism, Christianity, Islam and other religious on tribal societies in India (Before 1947, After 1947).

7.2 Tribe and nation state- a comparative study of tribal communities in India and other countries.

8. History of administration of tribal areas, tribal policies, plans, programmes of tribal development and their implementation. Role of N.G.Os.

8.1 Role of anthropology in tribal and rural development in India. 8.2 Contribution of anthropology to the understanding of regionalism, communalism ethnic and political movements.

One thought on “Syllabus – Anthropology Optional HAS/HPAS

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

The maximum upload file size: 2 MB. You can upload: image. Links to YouTube, Facebook, Twitter and other services inserted in the comment text will be automatically embedded. Drop file here