Syllabus – Forestry Optional HAS/HPAS

By | August 13, 2018



Forest and forestry, branches of forestry. Forest types of India and their distribution. Factors influencing vegetation. Natural and artificial regeneration of forests. Collection, storage and viability tests. Pre- sowing seed treatments. Nursery practices-selection and preparation of site. Application of fertilizers. Preparation of growing mixture and filling of containers. Aforestation–selection and preparation of site, selection of stock, time and pattern of planting. Tending operation.

Silviculture system-scope and classification. Detailed study of clear felling, shelter wood, selection, accessory and coppice systems and their modifications. Conversion. Choice of silvicultural system.

Binomial nomenclature, systems of classification. Growth habit, distribution, habitat requirements, phenology, silvicultural characters, regeneration methods and uses of Cedrus deodara, Pinus roxburghii, Pinus wallichiana, Pinus gerardiana, Picea smithina. Abies pindrow, Quercus spp. Shorea robusta, Tectona grandis, Dalbergia sissoo. Acacia catechu and Bamboo spp.

Social forestry – definition scope and objectives. Role of social forestry in meeting energy, small timber requirement of rural India, environment amelioration, water regulation and checking of erosion. Place of social forestry in the National Forest Policy. Species for social forestry plantation. Social forestry in Himachal Pradesh. Van Mahotsva and Chipko Movement.

Forest soils versus cultivated soils. Classification of forest soils, their physical, chemical and biological properties. Soil erosion-processes and factors responsible. Soil conservation methods. Watershed management and water harvesting structures. Role of forests in watershed management. Soil survey and land capability classes. Problems of forest soils and their management. Fertilizer materials and their applications in forest nurseries.

General concepts and methods of tree improvement. Role of biotechnology in tree improvement. Seed production and seed orchards. Forest ecosystems-principle components and steps. Ecological succession in forest. Impacts of management practices on forest succession. Nutrient cycling and budgeting. Herbaria-principle and its establishment. Grasslands-types in India and H.P., components of grasslands, methods to improve grasslands.

Measurement of individual trees-diameter, girth, height, bark thickness, crown width, crown length, form, volume and biomass. Measurement of forest stands (crops)-height, diameter, age and volume. Forest inventory, types of sampling. Estimation of stand growth, canopy density, yield tables and their application. Introduction to remote sensing and its application in forestry.

History of forest development in India. Forest policy of 1894, 1952 and 1988. Forest Law, its necessity. Indian Forest Act, 1927. Forest Conservation Act, 1980.



Logging and ergonomics-felling, conversion, transport, safety. Forest depots, saw milling, defects in wood. Wood seasoning. Wood preservation. Important wood characteristics: Wood density and strength. Wood based industries-Composite and improved wood, Pulp and paper, rayon, furniture. Forest Products-Oleoresin, katha and cutch, charcoal, tannin, gums, dyes, fibres & flosses, lac, wild fruits and oil seeds. Distribution, cultivation and utilization of pepper, cardamom, clove, Rauwolfia, Dioscorea, isabgol, belladonna, citronella grass, lavender, geranium, Mentha, Ocimum.

General characteristics of fungi, bacteria, viruses, phytoplasma and phanerogames causing tree diseases. Important diseases viz., Ganoderma root rot of shisham and khair, Armillaria root rot, Phytophthora root rot of deodar. Heart rots. Important characters of phylum, arthoropoda and class insecta. Insect-pest and disease management methods. Insect pests and diseases in forest nurseries and their management. Problems of weeds in forest nurseries and plantations. Weed control. Forest fires – their harmful and beneficial effects. Fire control methods. Fire fighting devices and extinguishing chemicals. Modern methods of forest fire control.

Principles of forestry extension education, adoption and differences of farm technology, communication methods, techniques of motivating farmers, farm women, NGOs, etc. Role of village/rural institutions for rural development.

Demand and supply analysis. Market structures and classification. Marketing of forest products and its role in economy. Cost-benefit analysis of forestry projects. Determination of optimal rotation of forest crops.

Management of wildlife habitats–Principles, practices and tools. Protected area– Sanctuary, National Parks and Biosphere reserves. Wildlife damage control–Mitigating human– wildlife conflict. Endangered species of wildlife in Himachal Pradesh. Special projects for wildlife conservation–Project Tiger and Musk Deer Project. Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972 including amendments. Wildlife conservation – Principles and strategies, in situ and ex situ conservation. Zoos and their role in conservation.

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