PRINCIPLES OF GEOGRAPHY
SECTION A- PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY
i) Geomorphology: Earth movements- orogenic and eperiogenic (folding and faulting), earthquakes and volcanoes, isostasy, Wegner’s theory of continental drift and plate tectonics. Rocks- origin and composition, weathering, mass wasting, concept of cycle of erosion, interruption in the cycle of erosion. Geomorphic agents and processes: Erosion, transportation and deposition- fluvial, glacial, aeolian, (arid), karst and coastal (marine) landscapes.
ii) Climatology: Atmospheric moisture: Humidity, evaporation and condensation; hydrological cycle; types of precipitation, world patterns of rainfall. Air masses and fronts: concept, classification and properties. Atmospheric disturbance: tropical and temperate cyclones; thunderstorms and tornadoes. Climatic classification; Koppen’s classification.
iii) Oceanography: Circulation of oceanic waters: waves, tides and currents; currents of the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. Marine deposits and coral reefs; Oceans as storehouse of resources for the future.
iv) Environmental Geography: Man-environment interrelations with concept of eco- system. Utilization of natural resources and environmental hazards. Emerging environmental issues- deforestation, global warning, conservation of bio-diversity.
SECTION B – HUMAN GEOGRAPHY
i) Population Geography: Demographic cycle concepts of over population, under population and optimum population; population problems in developed and developing countries; Migration- causes, patterns (past and present) and consequence. Number, density, growth and distribution of population, population pressure and resource utilization. Population explosion and food security.
ii) Economic Geography: Distribution and utilization of water, mineral and energy resources; their economic and environmental significance and conservation. Types and distribution of forests and fisheries- their economic and environmental significance and conservation. Major soil types and their distribution; problems of soil erosion and soil conservation. Mineral Resources- Iron ore and energy resources- coal and petroleum.
iii) Rural and Urban Settlements: Definition, types and patterns of rural settlements, origin and evolution of urban settlements; functional classification of urban places; trends, patterns and problems of urbanization in the world.
SECTION A – GEOGRAPHY OF INDIA
i) Physical Settings: India: A land of diversities; unity within diversities; A detailed study of physiographic divisions of India, drainage systems of India. Soil types of India- their distribution and characteristics; vegetation types and their distribution.
ii) Population and Agriculture: Spatial patterns of population distribution and growth; Socioeconomic implications of population explosion. Major Agricultural Crops: Rice, Wheat, Cotton and Tea. Green Revolution and its impact; Problems of Indian Agriculture.
iii) Minerals, Power Resources and Industries: The status of their use and need for conservation. Minerals- Iron ore, Power Resources- Coal, Petroleum and Hydro-power. Spatial patterns of Iron and Steel and Cotton Textile Industries, Industrial regions of India.
iv) Geography of Himachal Pradesh: Geomorphology, Climate, Drainage, Vegetation, Hydropower and Horticulture