Una district lies in the south-western part of Himachal Pradesh. It is bounded by Kangra district
in the north and north-east, Hamirpur district in the east, Bilaspur in the south-east and Punjab State in west and south.
The district is stretched between 31°17′52″ – 31°52′0″ north latitudes and 75°58′21″ – 76°28′25″ east longitudes. The district has a total area of 1,550 Sq.kms. and ranks 10th in the State in order of area.
The configuration of the district is a mostly hilly district and falls in the Himalayan foothill
zone is popularly known as Siwalik foothills.
Hill ranges /Dhars in the district Una:
Prominent among them are Sola Singhi Dhar or Jaswan Dhar, Chaumukhi Dhar, Dhionsar Dhar, Ramgarh Ki Dhar and Bangar Ki Dhar and all are stretching on the eastern part of the district. These Dhars run in the district from north-west to south-east direction.
Area adjoining Punjab border is also hilly. Eastern part of this district is relatively higher than that of western part. The elevation of this district varies between 332 metres and 1,162 metres above the mean sea level.
Soan river is the main river in the district which flows from north-west to south-east direction. Many tributaries like Borewali khad, Barerakhad, Garni khad, Panjoa khad, Ambwali khad, Badowali khad and Hum khad etc., join it in the district from right and left sides. Soan river and its tributaries form a valley in the district known as Soan valley which is flat and most fertile. It is a seasonal river and becomes itself a tributary of Satluj river outside the district.
In eastern part of the district, Lunkhar khad is another khad which flows in the south-easterly direction and merges with Satluj river. It also forms a narrow valley which is relatively flat and fertile. The climate of the district is sub-tropical to temperate and therefore, summers are hot and winters are cool. Siwalik ranges experience heavy rainfall which is mostly received during monsoon season.
On the basis of physiography, climate and soils, natural vegetation and geology, this district is divided into 3 sub-micro regions which are detailed below:
- This region is formed by the area surrounding Soan valley in the district, occupying the western Haroli sub-tehsil and northwestern part of the Una tahsil, western, northern and eastern parts of Amb tahsil and Bangana tahsil excepting areas which are in Soan valley and Satluj Basin.
- It is the biggest sub- micro-region of the district and is surrounded by Kangra and Hamirpur districts from north-east and east, respectively by Satluj Basin and Soan valley from south and by Punjab state from the west.
- This region has many low lying hills popularly known as Dhars viz, Sola Singhi Dhar, Chaumukhi Dhar, Dhionsar Dhar, Ramgarh Ki Dhar and they are all falling on the eastern part of the region.
- Eastern part is relatively higher in elevation than the western part.
- The elevation of this region varies between 433 metres and 1,162 metres above the mean sea level.
- Sola Singhi Dhar is the longest hill range of this region and is also known as Chintpurni Dhar and Jaswan Dhar. It rises from near Talwara and enters the district in the north where its culminating ridge forms the boundary between Una and Kangra districts. As this range passes southwards, it increases steadily in width as well as in elevation and attains a maximum height of 1,162 metres. This Dhar terminates on the bank of the Satluj river beyond this district.
- Chaumukhi Dhar enters the district in the east from Kangra side and runs south-easterly direction. It also forms a boundary between Una and Hamirpur districts. Dhionsar Dhar and Ramgarh Ki Dhar, on the western parts of the Bangana tehsil, extend from north-west to south-east direction and both the Dhars terminate on the bank of Satluj River.
- This valley spreads on both sides of Soan river in the Una district and covers the eastern part of Haroli Tehsil, the whole of Una tahsil except north-west and south-east corner, central and southern parts of Amb tehsil and a small part of Bangana tehsil.
- It is enclosed by Una Siwalik from three sides and by Punjab state and Satluj Basin from south.
- Soan river is an important seasonal river of the district which flows in the centre of Soan valley.
- It starts near Daulatpur in the north-west and flows towards the south-easterly direction.
- Soan river is a tributary of Satluj river which joins ultimately outside the district.
- The valley is formed by Swan river and by its tributaries which meet it from left and right sides.
- Important amongst them are Hum khad, Badowali khad, Kalohwali khad, Borewali khad, Barera khad, Garni khad, Panjoa khad, Ambwali khad and Chaler khad etc.
- This valley is narrow in the north and becomes wider in the central and southern portions of the district.
- The entire valley is most fertile and flat.
- The elevation varies between 332 metres and 554 metres above the mean sea level.
- From the banks of Swan river, slope starts rising gradually towards east and west.
- The valley receives considerable amount of rainfall most of which is received during monsoon season.
- This basin comprises mostly the eastern Una district which includes central and southern parts of Bangana tahsil and the southeastern fringe of Una tehsil.
- It is enclosed by Soan valley, Una Siwalik and Hamirpur district from west to east and by Bilaspur district and Punjab state from south. It is the smallest sub- micro-region of the district.
- The main khad/stream of this basin is Lunkhar khad which rises in the northern Bangana tehsil and flows in the centre of this basin from north-west to south-east direction.
- It is tributary of Satluj river which meets the Satluj river in the south where Satluj river forms the boundary line between Una and Bilaspur districts. Lunkhar khad also forms its own valley which is narrow in extent.
- Major tract of this basin lies between Chaumukhi and Sola Singhi Dhars in the east and Dhionsar and Ramgarh Ki Dhars in the west.
- Bangar Ki Dhar, a low lying hill, lies in the south-western part and runs in the southerly direction.
- Altitude of this basin varies between 462 metres and 867 metres above the mean sea level.
Drainage (River System)
- Satluj River flows in some parts of Bangana tahsil of this district.
- This river enters in Lathiani area of Bangana tahsil and further enters in Punjab state at village Bharmoti of this district.
- To irrigate the land of some villages of Una tahsil, the water of this river is being lifted at village Bhabour Sahib of Punjab area.
- There is another seasonal river named as Soan river which starts from Daulatpur Chowk of Amb tahsil and enters in Punjab state at village Santokhgarh of Una tahsil of this district.
- This river being seasonal serves no purpose of irrigation etc., rather it washes away fertile land during the rainy season.
- The Himachal Pradesh Government has started its channelization from Jhulera Bridge towards Santokhgarh.
- This district comprises of a portion of Govind Sagar reservoir falling in the district.
- Lunkhar khad spreads from Dumkhar to Bhakra.
There are 130 seasonal and perennial ponds measuring about 65 hectares area in the district. The district is bounded by river Beas on the north and river Satluj in the east.
- This district is situated at the foot of Siwalik Hills.
- Throughout the summer climate remains very hot.
- In the rainy season when rain occurs in the upper hills and water flows down to the plain the Soan river which is a seasonal river play havoc with the area.
- Consequently, much of the plain area has been swallowed by this river which requires channelization.
- By channelizing it much of the area will be protected from soil erosion and a lot of lives and property can be saved.
- During winter the days are too cold.
- During 2009 district received an average annual rainfall of about 1,329.8 mm. and the maximum temperature goes up to 39.50 c during the month of May and the lowest temperature of 2.30 c is recorded during January.
- Climate plays a vital role in the field of lifestyle and economic growth of the state, especially the performance of agriculture, horticulture and tourism sector is closely related to the performance of rain during the season.